TOFA is an international conference, providing opportunities for the worldwide thermodynamics community to meet, present and discuss their works. The aim of TOFA is to promote fundamental and practical aspects of the thermodynamics of alloys. The conference concluded successfully on 5th October 2018 in Seoul. The next meeting will be in Germany. Please visit TOFA-2018 website for more details.

During the weld pool solidification, oxide inclusion particles are influenced under interfacial tension force. Hence, the change in course of inclusions motion is expected. The interfacial tension plays an important role in engulfment and pushing of inclusion particles near the solid-liquid interface. Inclusions come under the effect of Marangoni force due to the difference in interfacial tension build due to surfactant concentration and temperature gradient.